History of the Department
History of the Division.
In 1963 professor V.G. Shakhbazov (1925-2005) organized a laboratory of Biophysical Genetics at the Chair of Genetics and Cytology. In 1973 the laboratory was transformed in Division of Genetics and was included in Research Institute of Biology.
From the very beginning in genetic studies at the Division the methods of genetics, physiology and biophysics were used.
The studies were directed to elucidation of the nature of heterosis – such complex and not enough studied genetic phenomenon, to mechanisms of inheritance of quantitative traits, and to genetic mechanisms of ontogenesis.
The studies were performed on different objects: stocks and hybrids of Drosophila melanogaster, mulberry and oak silkworm, agricultural plants.
Human cells were investigated since 1970 in connection with bioelectric properties of their nuclei. Polytene chromosomes of Drosophila were studied in connection with the problems of gene activity and organism stability.
Some important practical methods were elaborated: methods of prediction of the heterosis effect and non-specific stability of plants, method of determination of biological age, methods of assessment of the state of organism applied in medicine, occupational medicine and hygiene.
Since 2006 the Head of the Division is Yuriy G. Shckorbatov (Dr Sci).
Directions of research: regulation of gene activity, mechanisms of stability to external factors and stress-reactions on the level of cell nucleus and chromosomes, genetic mechanisms of ontogenesis and heterosis.
Objects of research: human cells, Drosophila melanogaster, mulberry and oak silkworms, agricultural plants.
The studies conducted in the recent years in the Division included the influence of laser light, microwave radiation, electric and magnetic fields on the state of chromatin condensation – the process of heterochromatinization.
The photograph of human buccal epithelium cell with granules of heterochromatin is presented in Fig.1. In our studies it was demonstrated that the heterochromatin granule quantity – HGQ increases after microwave irradiation (Fig. 2).
Effect of microwave irradiation on HGQ depends on the state of its circular polarization ; the ultra wideband irradiation also induces chromatin condensation .
We have demonstrated that the changes of the state of chromatin are connected with physical charges in human organism related to sport training, circadian rhythms and the process of senescence .
We have also proposed the method of determination of biological effect of electromagnetic fields on human cells  and the method of determination of the state of fatigue during the sports trainings .
1. Shckorbatov Y.G., Pasiuga V.N., Kolchigin N.N., Batrakov D.O., Kazansky O.V., Kalashnkov V.V. Changes in the human nuclear chromatin induced by ultra wideband pulse irradiation // Central European Journal of Biology. – 2009. – V.4. – N.1. – P. 97-106.
2. Shckorbatov Y.G., Pasiuga V.N., Kolchigin N.N., Grabina V.A., Batrakov D.O., Kalashnikov V.V., Ivanchenko D.D., Bykov V.N. The influence of differently polarized microwave radiation on chromatin in human cells // International Journal of Radiation Biology. – 2009. – V.85. – N.4. – P. 322-3293.
3. Shckorbatov Y.G., Zhuravleva L.A., Navrotskaya V.V. On Connection between the state of chromatin in cells of human buccal epithelium and the state of organism // The Second World Assembly on Ageing. Valencia Forum. Abstracts.- Valencia, 2002.- http://www. valenciaforum.com
4. Shkorbatov Yu.G., Kolchig³n M.M., and others. Patent of Ukra¿ne. ¹35375, 2008.
5. Shkorbatov Yu.G., Shakhbazov V.G., and others. Patent of Ukra¿ne ¹ 2000042134, 2001.